In The Garden in Arkansas
There are several topics to cover in this "In the Garden" section of the Cooperative Extension website. From native plants to butterfly gardening, to the reference library compiled of questions and answers, you will find a wealth of information related to gardening in Arkansas. Check back often to view new and updated information as it relates to your garden. We hope when you are finished reading the various topics listed here you will be back in the garden equipped to tackle your next gardening project.
A list of monthly gardening chores is listed below.
- January2018 -
Another year of gardening is in the books! While many gardeners are taking a bit of a break from gardening chores, it is a great time to reflect on what worked and what didn’t this past year. We did have a fairly mild growing season with more rain than normal until fall, and then we had summertime conditions—hot and dry. Many gardeners stopped watering when temperatures cooled off, but water is not just needed when it is warm. The thing to monitor is the amount of rainfall. If it is dry and lower than normal humidity, coupled with wind, water is needed even in the winter months. It just isn’t a daily need like it can be in the summer. Pay attention as we head into winter. Newly planted or transplanted trees and shrubs will need water when dry and container plants also dry out quickly. Shallow rooted vegetables and winter annuals would benefit from supplemental water if it is dry, particularly before a really hard freeze.
Along with a little water, winter annuals including pansies and violas would benefit from some fertilizer periodically on a warm winter day. This will keep them blooming better.
Winter vegetables can grow all winter provided the temperatures don’t drop too low. Keep some covering handy and if temperatures are predicted much below 28 you should protect them with an overturned box, pot or row cover. Harvest as needed throughout the winter, but do avoid contact when leaves are frozen since they will be brittle.
All landscape plants, including lawns can be brittle when temperatures are below freezing. If we do get winter precipitation in the form of ice, stay away from your plants until they thaw. Branches can snap quickly when ice is on them. If we get heavy snow, lightly brushing it away from gentle sweeps from below the branches can prevent limbs from breaking with the weight, but use caution. If you do experience weather damaged plants, assess the damage once the snow and/or ice is gone. If there are broken branches, prune to remove any dangling limbs. If leaves are burned, ignore it until spring. Pruning off cosmetic damage too early could expose more of the plant to further damage.
Many gardeners are noticing that their azalea plants have a lot of yellow foliage on them. For the majority of the plants this is their annual old leave shed. Some evergreen plants shed leaves periodically all season, while others shed once a year. If you look closely the leaves that are yellowing are those closest to the bottom of the branch. The tip leaves and buds are still green. White and light pink varieties are more prone to the dramatic yellowing than darker flowering forms, but it is nothing to be worried about.
As one season ends we begin planning for the season ahead. Catalog are arriving at a fast pace these days and there are so many new and interesting things to try. Start planning and be sure to try something new each year.
Watch for greening in your lawn as January continues. This greening in a dormant warm season grass will not be lawn grass but winter weeds. If you can catch them early you can stop their growth.
Plant of the month
Pansies are the most popular winter annual flower grown in Arkansas gardens. Pansies, come in a variety of sizes, colors and types, from blues, to reds, yellows, white, orange, pink and purple with even a few black ones thrown in. There are solid colors without faces called clears, to bi-colors with contrasting faces, to blended colors, giving you a mix of colors in each bloom. Intense breeding has developed flowers that can get as large as four and a half inches across, on lovely green foliage. It is hard to believe that these large, brightly colored flowers are descendants of the quiet, diminutive woodland violets.
The flowers have a velvety texture and bloom over a long period of time. Pansies thrive in cool weather, and will bloom until hot weather causes them to decline next summer. They can be planted from October through early January and again in late March through April, although spring planted plants are relatively short-lived in the garden.
Plant them in a well-drained location with moderately rich soil or in containers. They will grow in full sun to partial shade. Those in full sun will fade away sooner in the summer, but by then you have plenty of other plants to replace them with. Fertilize at planting and during any warm spell throughout the winter.
Very few pests attack pansies, however some gardeners are plagued by rabbits, and occasionally squirrels. Use whatever resources you have to deter them, although a light scattering of blood meal has been known to do the trick.
Pansies are also considered an edible flower. They are used in salads, and are crystallized and used as decoration on cakes. If you decide to nibble on your pansies, make sure that they have not been sprayed with any pesticides before doing so.
2017 - Let’s hope we can get off the rollercoaster ride we have had with weather since December. If you think you are confused, consider our poor plants which are out in it 24/7! In spite of the colder temperatures this winter so far we seem to have little plant damage, with the exception of a few burned back flowering winter annuals and vegetables. Flowering quince, mahonia, and winter honeysuckle should all be blooming soon and I have already seen blooms on Camellia japonica with some lingering blooms on Camellia sasanqua. Hellebores are also blooming nicely and some early bulbs are beginning to bloom as well. Pay attention to the weather, if really cold spells are predicted, you may want to cut some blooms to enjoy indoors—especially on those camellias. Covering plants will only give a few degrees of protection, but that can help, so watch the weather.
Winter annuals, from pansies and violas to parsley and flowering kale, like a little nutrition from time to time. When we have a mild spell, fertilize them. The new Cool Wave pansies are spreading nicely. All in all, in spite of winter weather, our winter color seems to be faring quite nicely. If you have color in containers, don’t forget to water periodically. Container plants dry out faster than those in the ground.
February is pruning month. Late in the month, prune back all ornamental grasses, (monkey grass included), fruit trees, blueberries, crape myrtles as needed, along with other summer flowering shrubs including butterfly bush, summer spirea, althea and vitex. Roses are also pruned this month, except for climbers—let them bloom before pruning. Before you begin to prune, have a reason to do so.
Winter weeds continue to thrive in spite of the weather. If you only have a few weeds, hand weed them or use a weed eater and zap them low. It won’t hurt your dormant lawn. If they are taking over the lawn and you want the lawn weed free, you need to use a herbicide to kill them. You need to do so soon, before the lawn awakens and the weeds set seeds. You can also mow the weeds to keep them from blooming.
Vegetables that were planted in late fall have overwintered quite nicely depending on how well they were established and/or protected, but February is the time to begin planting English peas, broccoli and cabbage transplants, onions, kale, greens, lettuce, bok choy and carrots. If you planted a cover crop in the garden, mow it down low and work it into the garden.
February is the last official month of dormancy, and as you can tell by your garden, dormancy is breaking in many plants. If you have shrubs or trees that need to be transplanted, get it done this month to make the move easier on your plants. Be careful if you transplant on a windy, cold day. Roots can dry out quickly or get damaged by cold weather.
Spring bulbs are up and growing, and a few are even blooming. When you see the flower bud beginning to show that is a great time to fertilize with a general fertilizer. Bulbs can bloom from now through April, but remember that the foliage needs to grow for at least six weeks after bloom to ensure flowers again next spring.
Fruit of the Month
Fruit trees are gaining popularity and more and more gardeners are planting them in their landscapes. Apples and pears are a bit easier to grow than peaches and plums, but all of these trees need annual pruning, and February is typically the time we do it. We prune fruit trees every year to maintain size and shape, but also to increase productivity and keep the trees healthy.
While there are many different types of pruning methods, traditionally apples, pears and plums are pruned with a central leader. The growth pattern of these trees is for the main stem of the tree to be dominant almost like a Christmas trees growth. Peach and nectarine trees are usually pruned with an open center method, sort of like an upside down umbrella with all the branches growing more open, leaving the center free. The open center is preferred as it opens the trees up for better air circulation and sunlight helping to cut down on diseases.
As you get started pruning, remove the obvious, and broken branches or branches crossing each other or directly on top of one another. Then selectively thin and maintain the height to make picking easier. For more pointers here is a link to our fact sheet on pruning fruit trees:
2017 - Spring is definitely in the air—and visible in our gardens. We are a good two weeks or more ahead of schedule. While we are still having some nippy mornings, we have had some pretty warm days. From daffodils and tulips, to forsythia and camellias, we have plenty of blooms in the garden. Let’s hope we don’t get any more hard freezes, but that is always a possibility in March, so pay attention to the weather forecast and be prepared to protect what you can.
We have had a lot of gardeners who are worried about whether they should still prune roses, butterfly bush and other summer bloomers, since they are not dormant, but freely putting on leaves. Regardless of whether your plants are growing or not, you still need to prune your roses, butterfly bush, summer blooming spirea (NOT spring blooming), fruit trees and blueberry bushes now. These plants need pruning every year and if you don’t prune, you will not get as many flowers on the ornamentals and the plants will get too large and woody. Fruit trees and blueberry bushes need annual pruning as well to maintain size and vigor. Other summer bloomers like crape myrtles, althea, abelia, itea, clethra and vitex can be pruned now too but only if needed. Ornamental grasses should also have the old foliage pruned off. Pull back the old growth to see how tall the new growth is coming so you can cut above that level. Pruning is not difficult, but you do need to know why, when, and how you are pruning to help your plants perform at their peak.
Vegetable gardening is in full swing. If you planted a winter garden, some of those vegetables are beginning to bolt or go to seed a bit early with all this mild weather. It is time to plant all the cool season vegetables again. We use onion sets or transplants, and for broccoli, cabbage and bok choy we use vegetable transplants, but we can seed lettuce, radishes, greens, spinach, and English peas. It is too early for tomatoes and peppers—don’t plant the warm season vegetables until April, even if you can find the plants available at a garden center.
Fertilize your winter annuals including pansies, violas and dianthus. Some of the ornamental kale and cabbage are beginning to stretch and bolt too with the warm weather. These plants are really biennials, which means they grow foliage the first season and then bloom, set seeds and die in warmer conditions. Normally they don’t begin to move into flowering this early but we normally don’t have 80 degree temperatures in February either. If you need a little extra color in your late winter/early spring garden you should be seeing plenty of options at garden centers and at the Arkansas Flower & Garden Show which is going on this weekend at the Statehouse Convention Center in LR. This is the season when we see English primroses, ranunculus and tuberous begonias being offered. They thrive on cool weather but don’t like hard freezes, so be prepared to cover them if it gets cold.
Pay attention to water needs on newly planted vegetables and annuals. If you are transplanting trees and shrubs, or planting new ones, they too will need regular watering. Water is not as critical when it is cooler, but we have had some dry, windy days and not as much moisture as we typically have in the winter.
Spring bulbs are blooming nicely. If you have not fertilized your spring bulbs, now would be a great time to broadcast a complete fertilizer around them. They need energy and nutrition immediately after bloom to help them set flowers for the next year. Keep the foliage happy and healthy for a minimum of six weeks after bloom to give them time to complete their life cycle. Then you can cut the foliage off. If you need to transplant bulbs due to low light or overcrowded conditions, do so immediately after bloom. Transplant with the foliage attached to a sunny location and let the leaves die back on their own. They often go through a bit of transplant shock and may die back a little early.
Winter weeds are growing and blooming quite nicely in lawns across the state. We are getting pretty late in the season for herbicides to be very effective on winter weeds, but you still have time to put out a pre-emergent for summer weeds. Once winter weeds begin to bloom and set seeds, damage is done. Try to mow to keep weeds from setting seeds but hold off on using any fertilizer until your lawn grass has totally greened up—usually late April to early May. Putting out any fertilizer now is going to feed winter weeds, which don’t need any encouragement.
Fruit of the month:
Figs are gaining in popularity in home gardens across the state. There are new varieties such as Chicago and Alma which are showing better winter-hardiness in the northern tier of the state as well as the tried-and-true varieties such as Brown Turkey and Celeste that we have been growing in the southern half for years. Figs bear fruit on the current season’s growth, so if your tree needs to be pruned doing so in late February to mid-March is ideal. In cold winters we can see some die-back on the trees, so waiting until the bulk of winter is over to prune can give you added protection. Figs usually ripen in mid to late summer. They like a well-drained spot with ample moisture but they are very disease resistant trees and require no spray programs. The biggest challenge is keeping birds and squirrels away.
2017 - What an unusual start to our gardening season we have had thus far! First an almost non-existent winter which has our gardens weeks ahead of schedule, then a late cold snap, which those up north had accompanied by a snow storm. We can only hope our summer is mild and moist. For most of us in central and southern Arkansas, I think we made it through the cold snap with very little damage. Those up north have seen some loss of flower buds on fruit trees and blueberry bushes, and hydrangeas that had fully leafed out did get nipped back. Fig trees and some tender perennials that had started growing also had a bit of damage, but should be on the road to recovery. Big leaf hydrangeas that have all of their new growth at the base will not bloom this summer unless you are growing the reblooming varieties. Let’s hope we are frost-free from here on out.
Even if we don’t have another frost, we still have some cool nights. I have been amazed by how many folks were planting tomatoes, peppers and squash in late March. There are plenty of vegetables that can be planted in the cool-season garden including broccoli, lettuce, onions, potatoes and cabbage, and they can all be planted until April 15. You won’t be that far ahead of schedule if you plant warm season things too early. They won’t kick in and grow until the soil temperature warms up. We still have nights below 55 degrees now, so wait until mid or late April to start planting your heat loving warm season vegetables. If you planted cool season vegetables either in the fall or early this winter, many of them are bolting or going to flower now. This is a result of our extremely warm weather in February and March. Once you see them putting up flower stalks start using them. As your cool season crops play out, replant with other vegetable plants.
Pansies, violas and snapdragons are still looking good in the annual beds, but if you planted flowering cabbage or kale, it is beginning to bloom and get leggy. Begin replanting annual color starting with plants that can tolerate a little cool weather, including callibrachoa, petunias, begonias and geraniums. Wait for warmer weather for the lantana, periwinkle and sweet potato vines. Caladium bulbs also need warm soil to be planted in. Just like with warm season vegetables, if we plant to early the plants will just sit there and wait until it warms up. Caladium bulbs can sit even longer if they get chilled before they begin to grow.
By now everything in your garden is beginning to show signs of life. Roses are blooming and a few folks still haven’t pruned their plants. I would enjoy the first show of roses and then give them a haircut. If you have roses that have not been pruned at all they will get too woody and leggy and we won’t see as many blooms all season. For climbing roses, let them flower and then prune annually.
If you have the crape myrtle bark scale, and you have not applied the systemic insecticide, now would be a good time to do so. Imidicloprid (Bayer Advanced Tree and Shrub Insecticide or Merit) is mixed with water and poured around the drip line of your plants. The roots absorb it and it moves up into the trees. Research is showing that one application is giving up to two years of coverage.
By mid-month you can begin to move your houseplants outside. If they need to be repotted, that is a good time to do so, since they often grow more rapidly in the heat and humidity of an Arkansas summer. If they are root-bound it is hard to keep them watered. If you are moving out any tropical flowering plants that you overwintered indoors, prune them back at least by half and repot as well. We want to encourage as much new growth as possible on them since they bloom on the new growth. Fertilize tropical weekly to keep them flowering.
Lawns are beginning to green up and we still have quite a few winter weeds blooming. For now, just keep the lawn mown to prevent more seeds from forming. Using herbicides during green-up can slow down the process and it is too late to be very effective anyway. Wait for the grass to be totally green before applying fertilizer.
Visit your nurseries and garden centers regularly. So many new plants are arriving daily and the options are limitless!
Plant of the month:
Strawberries. Strawberries are one of the first harvested home-grown fruits in the garden. This year they started blooming much earlier than normal, so we will be harvesting even earlier. These low-growing perennial plants are easy to grow in a sunny, well-drained location. Commercially, many growers are growing strawberries as an annual crop. They plant in plastic covered raised beds in the fall and harvest in the spring, pull the plants and then plant melons or other vegetables in the rows. Chandler is one of the main varieties grown this way. For home gardeners, we usually treat strawberries as perennials, growing them in a matted row system, but they can also serve as an edible ornamental and used as a groundcover. There are two basic types—often called June-bearing (which we harvest in April or May) or everbearing. Many folks like the sound of an everbearing strawberry imagining loads of fruit all summer long, but in reality they are not as prolific a producer as our regular spring only varieties. Cardinal is an excellent large-fruited variety developed by the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture. Earliglow, Noreaster, Surecrop and Ozark Beauty are all good verities for the home garden. If properly maintained a strawberry patch can be prolific for up to seven years or longer. If you are planting strawberries now, it is recommended that you pick off the flowers for the first season to encourage a stronger plant for future production. That can be hard to do. Once you are in production, never fertilize until after harvest. Early applications of fertilizer can lead to excessive vegetative growth and lead to more fruit rots. After you harvest, thin out your plants so they are six to eight inches apart. The plants you remove can help expand your planting.
2017 - We skated by pretty nicely by not having any hard freezes in April and are well on our way into the growing season, with most of the state still 2-3 weeks earlier on many blooms. The unexpectedly cold weather reappeared last weekend, but it seems to be gone now. We have had regular but spotty rain and it is important that you pay attention to water needs, particularly on newly planted trees, shrubs, annuals, perennials and vegetables. It is prime gardening season and there is plenty to do.
Many gardeners are getting heavy returns from their vegetable gardens. Lettuce, broccoli, peas, green onions, radishes, kale and Swiss chard are all readily available. As you harvest and create space in the garden, replant with warm season vegetables. Tomatoes, peppers, eggplant and squash can all be planted. Watermelon and cantaloupe plants take up a lot of space, so consider trellising them to control the spread. Southern peas and okra can be planted as the weather warms up. Mulch and control weeds, fertilize and water and do monitor for pests. We have already seen quite a few aphids and spider mites this season.
If you haven't pulled your pansies and violas yet, start making room for summer color. There are so many plants to choose from. Nurseries are getting in new plants daily, so visit often and see what is available. Annual flowers and tropical flowering plants do best if they are fed regularly. Speaking of tropicals, try some of the new varieties of mandevilla. While the normal pink and red varieties are great, there are some new pale apricot, and red and white striped varieties. They will bloom all summer. Hibiscus, bougainvillea and ixora give plenty of blooms. Your garden can be alive with color all summer.
Lawns are greening up and winter weeds are dying. Once your lawn is totally green, fertilize it for the year. Keep it mowed regularly. The thicker the turf, the fewer problems you will have with weeds.
May is usually the time we begin to see more insect and disease problems. The cool, wet weather at the end of April has caused us to see some thick fleshy leaves on azaleas and camellias. This is called azalea or camellia leaf gall. The thick, waxy growth can look awful, but is really more a nuisance. Snap off the thickened foliage and dispose of it. Once warm weather appears, the disease will stop, but the remaining growths can re-infest the plants next season. Lacebugs begin feeding on azaleas, whiteflies on gardenias, and bagworms begin to feast on junipers and other plants in the landscape. Last year we had quite a few reports of bagworm activity—that insect that constructs a sack from the plant it is feeding on. The sack protects the crawling larvae from predators and insecticides, so the key is to catch them as they begin. If you had a bad case of them last season, you might consider a preventative spray starting soon. Normally it is mid-May and once a week until mid-June, but they may start earlier too with our unusual weather. An organic approach is to spray with BT (Bacillus thuringiensis).
Even though many of our spring blooming shrubs bloomed out a month ago, there is still time to prune them if they need pruning. While timing is important so is how you prune. Thin out cane growers and selectively thin branches on other shrubs. Shearing plants into round “meatballs” causes all the blooms and new growth to be on the edge of the plants. What height do you want them to be when they finish growing this season? If you prune to the expected height, you aren’t leaving any room for growth, so compensate. The sooner after flowering you prune the better but make sure it is done before mid-June. This gives the plant time to recover before hot weather hits, and hopefully will produce more blooms next spring. Fertilize after pruning. Typically one application of fertilizer per year on trees and shrubs is all that is needed.
Fruit of the Month: Blueberries:
There are several types of blueberries that are grown in Arkansas. In Arkansas, the northern counties grow northern highbush blueberries and rabbiteyes are grown in the central and southern areas. There are also southern highbush varieties that grow well in central and southern Arkansas. The first to ripen are the early varieties of northern highbush and the last to ripen are the late rabbiteyes. All produce well when planted in the right spot with a minimum of 8 hours of sunlight. Blueberries like an acidic high organic matter soil which is well drained. They are not drought tolerant, so have an irrigation plan when you plant. The University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture has released Ozarkblue and Summit (along with NC State) southern highbush varieties. For northern highbush the recommended varieties are: Bluecrop, Bluejay, Blueray, Duke and Elliot. For rabbiteye varieties plant: Brightwell, Climax, Tifblue and Premier. All of the above need at least two different varieties for cross-pollination. A few newer introductions that are self-fruitful include Bountiful Blue and Sunshine Blue. They are more compact, almost shrub like plants and are semi-evergreen in most of Arkansas. Pink Lemonade is another self-fruitful variety. While not as prolific a producer as the other two, it produces pink fruit at maturity. While they are self-fruitful, best production will occur when you have two different varieties.
2017 - May gave us plenty of rainfall, and in some cases, too much. We also had mild temperatures with some really cool days. It would be nice if that trend were to continue but that may be wishful thinking. June typically brings much warmer temperatures and plenty of sunlight. Rain tends to become a bit spottier, so pay attention to water needs. It has been a great gardening season so far, but there is a lot of time left in this growing season. Start scouting for insects and diseases. Blossom end rot, squash vine borer and tomato blights in the vegetable garden, and spider mites, lacebugs and bagworms in the ornamentals often appear in June so pay attention and control as needed.
Vegetables are bountiful now. The cool season vegetables have been prolific this year and many are nearing the end of their life cycle. As one plant goes, plant another in its place to utilize all the garden. Now is a great time to plant sweet potatoes, southern peas, pumpkins, winter squash and gourds, and okra. You can keep planting peppers, eggplant, and tomatoes as they will continue to produce all summer. Be sure to water, mulch and fertilize. We typically get our first calls about blossom end rot after a heavy downpour. Blossom end rot starts as a water-soaked spot on the bottom of the tomato, which quickly turns black. While it looks like an awful disease, it is really a calcium deficiency typically caused by fluctuations in moisture levels. Mulch your plants, and try to keep the moisture levels even. Spraying with Stop Rot can help.
If you have any spring blooming shrubs that still need pruning, you need to do so ASAP. No pruning should be done after mid-June. After that, temperatures start getting hotter and plant recovery time will be slower. If the plants don’t have ample time to fill back in, they won’t have as many flowers next spring. Only prune if there is a reason. If you have not fertilized your spring blooming shrubs, do so now. One application a year should suffice on most trees and shrubs.
Lawns have fully greened up and we are into the weekly mowing routine. If you have zoysia and St. Augustine, one application of slow release high nitrogen fertilizer should be enough for the year. Bermuda grass responds the best to nitrogen, and could be fertilized monthly, if you want to mow twice a week. Two applications a year should be sufficient. You don’t need to keep your lawn wet—letting it dry out in between watering is a good thing. When mowing, don’t remove more than one-third of the leaf blade at a time, or you will stress your lawn. Weeds have been quite prolific all winter and now the summer weeds are taking over. A thick lawn is your best defense against weeds.
As mild as our May was, many gardeners still have blooming pansies and violas, but it is time for summer color. Our nurseries are loaded with options. Some take heat better than others, but some great heat tolerant sun-loving plants include cuphea, lantana, pentas, periwinkle, and zinnias. For the shade try, caladiums, dragon wing begonias, impatiens, and torenia. Wax leaf begonias and coleus can do sun or shade. To keep your annuals blooming all summer fertilize regularly. Petunias and callibrachoas will bloom all summer if they are given regular fertilization. Water as needed.
As temperatures heat up and humidity rises, tropical plants are in their element. From hibiscus, mandevilla and ixora to jatropha, bromeliads and allamanda there are plenty of choices. New tropical plants arrive weekly. Along with annuals, these plants need regular fertilization and water to keep blooming.
Perennials are adding to the color palette. Many perennials benefit from having their spent blooms cut off (called deadheading) so they put all their energy into flower production and not seed production. Daylilies, coneflower, gaillardia and other seed-setters, should be deadheaded weekly. If you have roses that set seeds—or rose hips, deadheading those will also keep flower production higher. Perennials don’t need as much nutrition as annuals, and different plants have different needs. Most roses need monthly fertilizer during the growing season, except for the Earth kind roses, such as Knockout and Drift. Two to three applications a year is enough for them.
Plant of the month:
One of my favorite fruits of summer is the blackberry. As a kid most of us dreaded picking blackberries because of all the thorns on the canes, but the end result made it worth doing. Today we can have our blackberries and get them without scratches because of the many thornless varieties. The University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture has been a world leader in blackberry breeding. They have developed blackberry cultivars that have become the standard worldwide. All of the blackberry cultivars developed by the University of Arkansas have been named after Native American Indian tribes. While there are both great thorny and thornless varieties, I prefer the thornless. Thornless varieties developed by the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture are ‘Apache', 'Arapaho' ,'Natchez', 'Navaho', 'Osage' and 'Ouachita'. Thorny varieties include 'Chickasaw', 'Choctaw', 'Kiowa' and 'Shawnee'.
Blackberries are native to Arkansas and are easily grown statewide with little need for any pesticides or spray programs. They have an upright growth habit and typically don’t need much support once established. Most of the blackberries grown in the home garden produce their fruit on canes that were grown the year before. Once the canes bear fruit, those canes die out and make way for new canes which have the fruit the following year.
Blackberries grow best in full sun, in a well-drained soil. Fertilize as they begin growing in the spring and again after you harvest. After harvest, remove the old canes and keep the new canes pruned to a manageable height. Plant your blackberries where they have room to grow and spread, as they are long-lived and do multiply over time.
2017 - Our weird weather has continued. While we have had a taste of hot, humid weather, for the most part we have been skating through pretty nicely with mild temperatures, even with fairly frequent rain, but who knows how long our luck will last? Pay attention to the weather, make sure you have a rain gauge in your yard—since rainfall can be spotty, and know when to water. For those with automatic sprinkler systems, use common sense about how often to water and for how long. Daily irrigation is not needed for most plants unless you are growing plants in containers and they are in full sun. Fertilization is important for flowering plants to keep blooming and fruiting plants to set fruits and vegetables. Make sure there is ample moisture in the soil before fertilizing, and use the fertilizer at a lower rate. High doses of fertilizer on a dry plant that is heat stressed, can lead to burned foliage. You can always add more fertilizer, but you can’t take away damaged plant foliage. Fertilizer is important for annuals and vegetables that are planted in the ground as well as in containers.
It has been one of the best hydrangeas years we have had in a long time. Not only were our big leaf hydrangeas covered in blooms ranging from blue to purple to pink but now the panicle and smooth varieties are blooming. Most hydrangeas love water and shade in the afternoon, but the panicle forms will tolerate full sun. some varieties are susceptible to cercospera leaf spot, and many plants succumb late in the year. We have started seeing this disease earlier than normal. If you have had it in the past and don’t see it now, you can use a systemic Immunox or Bayer Advanced Disease control for Roses, Flowers and Shrubs. Daconil will also work
Because of the frequent rains this year, many tomato diseases have been at a premium. We have seen quite a bit of septoria leaf spot on tomatoes. Infection usually occurs on the lower leaves near the ground, after plants begin to set fruit. Numerous small spots appear on the leaves and heavy infestations will cause the leaves to turn yellow, die and fall off the plant. The fungus is most active when temperatures are between 68 to 77° F with high humidity and rainfall. Fungicides applications with chlorothalonil or a copper fungicide can help manage the disease. There have also been some bacterial diseases on tomatoes including bacterial wilt. This disease begins with wilting of younger leaves, followed by a rapid wilting of the entire plant. There will be a dark discoloration and soft rot of the pith (inside of the stem). If you suspect this, you can cut the stem and put it in a glass of water. In 3-5 minutes, a milky exudate will begin streaming from the cut end. There is no cure for this disease, so if you have it, destroy the plants and practice crop rotation. Do not use pepper, eggplant, or potato in the rotation, as they are susceptible as well.
If you have annuals and perennials that set seeds, deadhead them frequently. Deadheading is removing the spent flowers to prevent them from setting seeds. Plants that bloom all season will have more flowers if you remove the spent blooms, since the energy they would expend forming seeds, goes back into the plant to set more flower buds. Many new varieties are now called self-cleaning, meaning they drop the spent flowers on their own without setting seed heads. They do not require deadheading.
If you still need some color in your garden, there is still plenty to choose from at local nurseries and garden centers. Tropical flowering plants are still arriving and this is their season—they love it hot and humid. Water and fertilize weekly and they will bloom non-stop. Many summer blooming perennials are in their prime now, from the dinner plate sized blooms on hardy hibiscus, to non-stop color on coneflowers, Shasta daisy, coreopsis, liatris and rudbeckia. Many of these flowers need dead-heading after bloom.
Probably one of the most popular fruits is the peach. When a home gardener begins to think about planting a fruit tree, the first thing that comes to mind is a peach tree. Peaches, however, are one of the most difficult fruit trees to grow in Arkansas. They require the most intensive spray program to get quality fruits. Rainy years are worse for diseases than dry summers. Brown rot, a common fungal disease, can turn pretty fruit into brown mush seemingly overnight if proper sprays are not performed. All of that being said, peaches are in season now.
There are two distinct types of peaches – freestone and cling, which describes whether the fruit adheres to the seed or the seed pops out fairly easily.
We were on a pretty mild gardening streak for a while, but now the temperatures are heating up and rainfall is very spotty. Some areas are still getting regular showers, while others are bone dry. Water is one of the most important tasks in the garden right now, so make sure you have a rain gauge and know how much water your yard is receiving. High water bills may seem unbearable, but have you looked at the cost of having a large tree removed? Water is critical to healthy plant growth.
ontinue to deadhead perennials and even some shrubs. Deadheading is the process where you prune off the flowers as they finish looking good, preventing them from producing seed. The reason for a flower is seed production, but in our gardens we want flower production. Many new varieties of perennials and shrubs are self-cleaning, meaning the flowers finish, drop and don't produce seeds, making them more free-flowering. If you have varieties that do set seeds, including butterfly bush (Buddleia), summer spirea, and crape myrtles, cutting off the spent blooms will help the plants continue to bloom. The same rule applies to perennials, black eyed Susan’s (rudbeckia), coneflowers (Echinacea) and gaillardia will all set seeds if you don’t deadhead them, and you want more flowers. Once a week or two prune the old flowers off. In the herb world, the more you prune basil, the bushier and fuller it grows. If you allow it to bloom and set seeds, you get less basil for your tomato caprese!
We have been having a really good garden year with a wealth of tomatoes, peppers and more. The hotter it gets, the more toll it may take on some plants. Others like okra, eggplant, southern peas and sweet potatoes are thriving in the heat. Tomatoes are slowing down in production when daytime temps exceed 95 degrees or night's stay warm and humid too. But, with proper care they will begin to bear again when it cools off. It won’t be long before tomato plants are available to plant again for a fall garden. Believe it or not, August is the time to start planting the fall garden. Peppers, eggplants, and tomatoes can be replanted for a bountiful fall harvest. Broccoli, cabbage, greens, and green beans can also be planted now. It is not the easiest time to get a new garden established, so really water well and mulch. With a little extra effort now, you can have a great harvest this fall. Usually by fall, the insects are really attacking, so monitor for pests regularly. Grasshoppers are around and can devastate young seedlings, so monitor frequently. Fall planting can continue into fall as well.
Many of you may feel permanently attached to a garden hose, but if you have plants in containers, daily watering is a must. The more frequently you water, the quicker you are leaching out nutrition. Fertilization is important for many tropical flowers and annuals to continue to blooms. Make you’re your plants have ample water before fertilizing. You typically want to apply at a lower rate to avoid burning your plants. Light frequent applications would be better than a heavy dose. Fertilizer is a salt, and it can burn plants that already dry and heat stressed. If your summer annuals are surviving, but looking a little peaked, give them a light haircut and a light dose of fertilizer and they too can rebound. Keep in mind that we have several more warm months, and most annuals can give you color up through October or November.
All plants that bloom in the spring, including azaleas, dogwoods, forsythia along with camellias, tulip magnolias, Loropetalum and kerria, set their flower buds in late summer to early fall. Fruit trees, blueberry bushes and strawberries all have their flower and fruit buds set when they go dormant in the fall as well. Because we had a particularly early spring this year, many of these plants have set or are currently setting their flower buds for next spring. A few summer flowering plants are also setting flowers for next summer now. They include the big leaf hydrangeas, oak leaf hydrangeas and gardenias. For this reason, they don’t need to get too stressed now or they may not set any or fewer flower buds. They also should not be fertilized or pruned now. For the most part, watering and mulching is the only care they need.
It is fig season and fig trees are loaded with fruit again in central and southern Arkansas, but may have had some winter damage in the northern tier. The common fig (Ficus carica) can be grown throughout Arkansas, but hardiness does vary within cultivars. Figs are considered a deciduous tree, but in colder climates they are often relegated to large bushes, since they can be killed back with temperature much below 15 degrees.
Figs are a member of the mulberry family (Moracae) and are related to many familiar houseplants including weeping fig, rubber tree, and the fiddleleaf fig. The fig is one of the oldest fruit crops known to man, and it has long been grown in the South. If they suffer no winter damage, figs can reach a height of 25 or 30 feet tall and equally as wide. If space is limited they can be pruned to maintain a more reasonable size. Even if they do get frozen back to the soil line- they will typically re-sprout from the root system and may bear some fruit that year, since they do bear figs on the current season growth. There are four distinct horticultural types of figs, but in our climate only the common fig can be grown.
Figs will produce best when planted in a well-drained soil in full sun. They have a fibrous, shallow root system which makes them sensitive to drought stress. If your fig tree gets too dry, it can drop fruit. Fruit drop can be caused by several things, including dry conditions, but also storms, cool weather soon after fruit set and weak trees. Birds, squirrels and other animals like figs as much as we do, so bird netting or protective devices can help.
The fruit is perishable so eat it quickly or make preserves
2017 - We have had a taste of fall-like weather, so we know fall is not too far on the horizon. While we are probably not done with hot weather, we really were lucky on the summer we had. We had milder than normal temperatures and more rainfall than normal for an Arkansas summer. Some plants thrived in these conditions, while others may have struggled a bit. It is time to take stock of your gardens, figure out what worked and what didn’t and with annuals and vegetables begin to replant for fall and winter.
Leaf spot diseases and mildew have been a common problem on many plants late in the season. I doubt you will find many hydrangeas without a spot here and there, or peonies dying back, or spots on dogwood leaves. Don’t worry and don’t start spraying. This late in the season it is time to clean-up, water when dry, and prepare for dormancy. Any perennials that have started dying back or have dead or diseased leaves can be cut back now. That includes peonies, lilies, and bleeding hearts. Once the leaves begin to decline, their season is over and they will be fine until they reappear next spring. Trees and shrubs with damaged foliage should be monitored for leaf fall. Once that begins, rake it up and clean it up and start fresh next spring. Don’t prune trees and shrubs now, especially spring bloomers, as they have set their flower buds for next spring.
Fall color is arriving at nurseries and garden centers statewide. If your garden needs some quick color you can plant some warm season plants like ornamental peppers and marigolds which will survive until a frost and have great fall color, but you can replant petunias and callibrachoa which will tolerate warm weather and several light freezes. Dianthus, ornamental kale and cabbage—along with the edible ornamental Swiss chard, purple mustard and kale can all be planted now. Violas will tolerate more swings in temperatures than pansies will, so consider adding a few as the temps cool off. Hold off on pansies until the hot weather is gone. They get leggy quickly if exposed to too much heat. Make sure you don’t forget to water.
Fall perennials include mums and asters, which many gardeners grow as annuals. We are also seeing good color on Chelone (turtlehead), Tricyrtis (toad lilies) and Japanese anemones. Goldenrod is blooming and salvias are kicking into high gear. We are beginning to see good plumes on ornamental grasses. Pumpkins and gourds are also popping up and fall bulbs are beginning to make an appearance. You can buy your bulbs now, but let it cool off a bit before planting. Large, firm bulbs will give you the best display next spring. If you have room in your refrigerator you can pre-chill the bulbs before planting, but that isn’t a requirement.
Some gardeners had better success than others in the summer vegetable garden, but many plants are getting tired. If you can find transplants, you can replant some fall tomatoes and peppers. You can also begin to plant cabbage, broccoli, greens, lettuce and radishes. Eggplants and peppers are still producing pretty well in most gardens, so continue to harvest and enjoy as long as they last. Mulch any new plantings and do water. With just a little bit of protection, we can now produce edibles year-round in a home garden.
One of the easiest of the fruit crops to grow in Arkansas are muscadines. Muscadine grapes are native and grow in almost all parts of Arkansas except the most northern counties. They can be eaten fresh or made into juice, jelly or wine. They grow best where they have full sunlight and a well-drained soil. They need some type of trellis, arbor or fence to grow on, and will grow up a tree-but production will not be as good, since shade can be a limiting factor.
In the wild, muscadine vines produced either separate male or female flowers, with both plants needed to produce fruit. Today cultivated varieties are self-fruitful, meaning the plants have perfect flowers containing both male and female parts. For self-fruitful black varieties try Cowart, Nesbitt and Noble and for bronze-fruited varieties plant Taro, Granny Val and Carlos. If you still prefer the old-fashioned female only varieties like Supreme, Black Beauty, Summit and Fry, if you have at least one vine of a perfect-flowered variety it can pollinate eight surrounding female plants.
Musacadines don’t need as much pruning as a table grape, nor do they have many diseases or insect problems. They can be an acquired taste with large seeds inside, but I do love to eat them.
2017 - We skirted through the bulk of our growing season with flying colors and then September happened. We seemed to have gotten our droughty summer in one month. Most gardens were the driest they have been all season. The quick week of cooler weather, and maybe the calendar had many folks thinking fall was here and they didn't need to pay attention to watering anymore. I have seen so many brown lawns, dying plants and falling leaves. I am truly worried about some of these plants surviving to grow another season. If you have not been watering, pay attention and do if your yard is dry. How well your plants head into fall and winter can determine how well they will begin growth next spring.
Now is a great time to start planting fall and winter color. If you haven't visited your local nursery or garden center recently, you are in for a treat. From pansies and mums to snapdragons, flowering kale and edible kale, purple mustard, Swiss chard, asters, goldenrod and much, much more awaits. Make sure you do water when planting.
Spring blooming bulbs can also start going in the ground mid-month through the end of the year. I like to wait for cooler weather before I begin to plant. Daffodils, crocus and hyacinths will come back year-after-year, but for most varieties of tulips, it is best to treat them as annuals and plant new bulbs each season. You can plant the bulbs underground with pansies and winter annuals above.
Fall vegetable gardens are still growing strong if you kept up with their care. Many gardeners are seeing a resurgence of tomatoes and peppers, while okra and eggplant are also doing well. There is still time to plant transplants of broccoli, cabbage, Swiss chard and kale. Most of these plants can grow year-round now with just minimal protection if temperatures get below 28 degrees. If you are done gardening for the season, consider planting a cover crop or mulching your garden spot to prevent weeds from growing all winter.
October is the month when we move our houseplants and any tropical plants into a protected spot, if you are bringing them indoors. Try to move them when inside conditions mimic outside temperatures. If you wait for too many cool nights, the plants will have a much harder transition moving inside. Usually by mid-October they should be making the move. If you are just putting them into a garage or winter storage area, then you can wait a bit longer.
Many perennials started their decline early this year. If the plants are looking bad, don't wait for a frost to cut them back, do it now. If your spring or summer blooming perennials need to be divided, now is a great time to do so. By doing the work in the fall, we allow the roots to get established while the tops are dormant. They will be well-established and ready to take off next growing season. Now is also a great time to plant wildflower seeds and many perennials including poppies, purple coneflowers, columbine, foxglove and the annual larkspur, Texas bluebonnets, bachelor’s buttons and cornflowers.
Practice good sanitation in the garden. We had a lot of diseases this season and weeds were at an all-time high. As plants begin to play out, pull them up and get them out of the garden. If they were diseased, discard them, if not, add them to the compost pile. Weeds are continuing to grow and if you allow them to bloom and set seeds, you will have more next season. Summer weeds are nearing the end of their season, while winter weeds are beginning to grow. That is one thing we are almost never without in a garden—weeds! Use a good hoe, or hand pull, mow and mulch.
Pumpkins are everywhere now, along with gourds. It is an easy way to add instant color to a landscape, and with good choices, they can last for months. Choose a pumpkin that is blemish free and that has a short stem on it. Some gardeners
The jujube originated in China where they have been cultivated for more than 4,000 years. Eventually they made it to the United States, but it wasn't until 1908 that improved Chinese selections were introduced by the USDA. Ziziphus jujube, is commonly called Jujube, Chinese date or Arkansas date, since the mature fruit resemble and taste somewhat like a date.
The jujube can withstand a wide range of temperatures--from hot summers to cold winters. Winter dormancy allows it to withstand temperatures to about -28° F, yet it requires only a small amount of winter chill in order for it to set fruit. While it is not a common fruit in Arkansas it does grow statewide. I was recently at a meeting in NW Arkansas where someone had brought the yellow-green fruits.
The fruit can vary from round to elongate and can be the size of a cherry to plum-size depending on cultivar. It has a thin, edible skin surrounding whitish flesh. The single hard stone inside contains two seeds. The immature fruit is green in color, but as it ripens it goes through a yellow-green stage with mahogany-colored spots. The fully mature fruit is entirely red. Shortly after becoming fully red, the fruit begins to soften and wrinkle. The fruit can be eaten after it becomes wrinkled, but many people prefer them during the interval between the yellow-green stage and the full red stage. At this stage the flesh is crisp and sweet, reminiscent of an apple. Under dry conditions jujubes lose moisture, shrivel and become spongy inside--date-like.
Plant the tree in a well-drained location in full sun. These deciduous trees are easy to grow and can grow to be 30 feet tall or more. They are pest-free and self-fruitful. You will have better production if the tree has ample moisture through the growing season. The fruits ripen in the fall and can be eaten fresh, dried or candied.
2017 - We had a taste of cold weather sooner rather than later this year. Many folks are saying we went from summer to winter overnight. I hope all tender plants have been moved indoors or to protected places. Don’t be alarmed if some of the leaves fall as they acclimate to inside conditions which are low on light and humidity. Some parts of the state have had a frost, but others have not. Regardless, the cooler temperatures make for a pleasant environment to get outside and rake some leaves, and get some gardening chores done.
In addition to raking leaves, fall clean-up season is here, both in your flower beds and vegetable gardens. Cut back the fronds of asparagus as they die back and put down a light layer of mulch. If your vegetable plants struggled with insects and diseases, rake up the spent debris now and dispose of it. Don’t add it to your compost pile or you may add more problems next season. The leaves have been falling for months now, and will continue this month. A light layer on your lawn or garden is not an issue, but don’t let them accumulate for too long. Heavy piles of leaves can cut down on air circulation, oxygen and sunlight. Leaves are a great raw commodity for compost—one of the best things to enrich your soils. Start your own compost pile or use shredded leaves as mulch in the garden.
If you haven’t planted your winter annual color, do so soon. From pansies to snapdragons, flowering kale, cabbage and Swiss chard, there are plenty of options, but we need to have time for the roots to establish so they can make it through the winter.
Fall is an excellent time to plant bulbs. The ground is cooling off and it is the perfect season to get a jump-start on spring color. Plant your bulbs in a well-drained location in full sun. On average we plant the bulbs 2-3 times as deep as they are large.
November is also the ideal month to plant a tree. Whether you need a large shade tree or a smaller ornamental tree, while they are dormant they will spend time getting their root system established. This will make them better adapted to surviving the first summer. Water is always important.
Many vegetable gardeners are now gardening year-round with just a little bit of covering on hand. Most cool season vegetables will tolerate light frosts with no covering. If temperatures get much below 28 degrees, then covering them with a cardboard box, an inverted pot or a covering can help. High tunnels or row covers can also extend your gardening season.
There are two types of persimmons grown in Arkansas, the native persimmon with mature fruits which are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter, and the oriental persimmon with mature fruits ranging from flat shaped to rounded grapefruit sized fruits weighing up to a pound or more.
The native persimmon tree is dioecious—there are separate male trees and separate female trees. You need one of each to bear fruit, and only the female tree will have any fruit. With the oriental persimmons, some are self-fruitful and others need another variety for pollination.
Persimmons can be grown from seed, but it can take 4-9 years before they begin to bloom and then you need to determine if they are male or female. Most trees in the trade are grafted, and can begin to bear fruit in 3-6 years.
The common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow growing, mid-sized native tree whose fruit ripen in the fall. The Latin name means “food of the gods”, but if you have ever eaten a common persimmon fruit prior to a frost, you know the meaning of pucker-power. The fruits are highly astringent until they have fully ripened. While a frost is really not needed to ripen them, they do require a long season to get fully ripe, and if not ripe, they will be astringent, bordering on inedible.
Oriental persimmon fruit ripens from late August until early December, depending on the variety and weather conditions. Fuyu-Gaki persimmon is the most widely planted cultivar in the world. When fully ripe, this fruit turns a crimson red with a blue blush. It is also self-fruitful. Other self-fruitful varieties include Gionbo with very large (4-5") orange conical, astringent fruits, Great Wall, and Matsumoto. Most oriental persimmon trees grow about 15 feet tall and wide and can be as ornamental as they are edible.
Persimmon fruits can be eaten raw or cooked, fresh or dried, and are eaten out of hand or used in baked goods, puddings, and other deserts. Low in calories and fats, this little fruit contains all kinds of phytonutrients, flavonoids, and antioxidants.
2017 - Arkansas is famous for fluctuating temperatures, but few can remember anything as drastic as this year. We had colder than normal temperatures in mid-December (down into the teens or single digits depending on where you live) and we ended the year with a repeat of spring. From heat to air conditioning in the same day! We did finally get some much needed rain, so our plants are in pretty good shape if they can just stay dormant until spring officially appears.
If you had winter vegetables that were not covered, they may have been nipped a bit, but should bounce back. Even an upturned pot covering can protect them enough to make it through on really cold nights. If you have some burned leaves on ornamental kale or cabbage, clean them up. On one of the milder days, fertilize your winter vegetables and winter annuals.
If you have some damaged leaves after the last cold snap, don't do anything about it. We are just heading into the winter season and pruning now would expose more of your plant to damage. Unless you see broken branches, leave them be until spring. When we get well below freezing, your plants may look wilted or shriveled, but they are frozen. Frozen plants can be quite brittle, so leave them alone and wait for the temperatures to come above freezing. If we do get any winter precipitation, same rules apply. Ice or sleet on plants should be ignored. If you have heavy snow accumulations, lighten the load gently so you don't break branches in the process.
Many of us were in the midst of holiday activities when we got our first killing frost. If you have time, clean up the garden removing the spent summer annuals, and clean up the perennials. If you still have leaves in the garden, continue to rake. By now the majority of the leaves are off the trees.
Sasanqua camellias are still looking great in the garden. A few flowers may have been zapped by the cold, but there are many more flower buds that can open over the next month. If your garden lacks winter color, consider adding some Sasanqua camellias, deciduous hollies for their beautiful berries or the perennial hellebores which are putting on a show.
Our houses often look a bit bland after we take down the holiday décor, but if you received a poinsettia, they can continue to add color for months, if you give them the right care. Bright sunlight and even moisture can keep the colorful bracts showy. Amaryllis bulbs can also add instant color. These large bulbs produce large showy blooms on a tall stalk. But beware they can become a bit top-heavy, so weighing down the pot can help support them.
The saying “if you don’t like the weather today, just wait until tomorrow” could not be more applicable these days. While the entire state has had some light freezes, and some parts have had a hard, killing frost, the majority of the state is still seeing summer blooming annuals, and lingering tropical flowers. We go through all four seasons in 24 hours some days. This is tough on people, but even harder on the plants that must decide what season it is. In addition to the warmer temperatures, we have been really dry. When the temperatures gets cool, it often misleads people to think that their watering days are over. Monitor the rainfall, or lack thereof, and water when dry. There are many wilting plants out there. Dry plants will be more sensitive to winter damage. Pay particular attention to newly planted trees, shrubs, perennials and annuals. Plants in containers also dry out faster than those in the ground, so water. We may not have to water daily like we do in the summer, but water is still important for survivability.
While some summer annuals are still blooming, so are the cool season annuals. If you haven’t planted your winter annuals, there is still time. The key is to look for blooming pansies and violas, and larger flowering kale, Swiss chard and purple mustard. Small non-blooming plants will not give you much in the way of color until spring, so buy more established plants, plant, fertilize and water and they should give you instant color and last all winter. If you have already planted, fertilize monthly during the growing season.
Raking is definitely needed in most yards. Leaves were falling early this year, and the high winds in November felled most of the foliage, but there are still some leaves left on our trees. A heavy layer of whole leaves on your lawn shouldn’t last all winter or it can damage the lawn. Rake them and if possible shred them and add them to the compost pile, or use the shredded leaves as mulch in the garden.
It is bulb planting time. Through December you have ample time to plant daffodils, tulips, crocus and more. Speaking of bulbs, a popular indoor flowering bulb is the amaryllis and the bulbs are readily available now. These large bulbs produce huge, showy blooms in shades of red, pink and white. With proper care, they can live for years giving you larger and longer blooming flowers each season. The plants do get quite tall and can be top-heavy, so weight them down or use a larger pot to plant them in. Turn the plants periodically to keep them from leaning. Once they begin to grow, you should see a bloom in 6-8 weeks.
Poinsettias are still the number on holiday plant and they are everywhere. From the orange colored ones available at Thanksgiving to red, white, pink and multi-colored plants, there is a poinsettia for every home. With plenty of sunlight and even moisture the plants can stay showy for months.
If you planted a late fall or winter garden, the vegetables are doing nicely. Continue to water when dry and fertilize periodically too. Most cool season vegetables thrive in cool weather, but may need a bit of extra covering when temperatures fall below 26-28 degrees. Frost damage is always worse on a cold still night. Overcast or windy nights tend to help prevent heavy frost accumulations.
Pecans are synonymous with the holidays in the south. They are native to North America, from Texas to Illinois. Native Americans were using pecans extensively long before the European settlers came. They pressed the oils for seasoning, ground them into meal to thicken stews, cooked them with beans, and roasted them for long hunting trips. While many still harvest and use native pecans, through plant breeding, the size and quality of the nut has grown substantially over the years.
Pecan trees grow best in a long, warm growing season, without much of a temperature drop at night, which is why they are a southern crop. Further north the hican, a cross between a pecan and a hickory tree are grown, which are more tolerant of cold weather.
To produce nuts, you need at least two varieties for cross-pollination. Pecan trees produce separate male and female flowers on the same tree. However, they are usually not in bloom at the same time on the same tree. Some varieties shed their pollen before the female flowers are receptive. Therefore they need pollen from another variety that matures its pollen a little later.
Nut size will vary with the variety, age of tree, size of the crop and moisture conditions during the growing season until shell hardening. Most trees will start to produce pecans within five to eight years depending on variety, growth rate and location.
Harvesting pecans occurs from mid-October through November, and occasionally into December. For home harvesting, gathering falling nuts can be an option, but you usually have to fight the squirrels, who are master nut gatherers. Unlike smaller growing apple and pear trees, pecans trees are quite large at maturity, growing up to 150 feet tall with a wide spreading canopy. Since at least two trees are needed, this can quickly fill up a standard home landscape. Although they do serve as a good shade tree, harvesting quality nuts in a home situation can be tricky. There are several diseases and insects which attack them, and commercial growers are better equipped to spray for these problems. Due to their large size, it is difficult, if not impossible for home gardeners to spray for control. For this reason, consider pecan trees as a shade tree, and if you get quality nuts that is a bonus.
While there are not many citrus trees that can survive outdoors in Arkansas, many home gardeners are raising lemons, limes and even oranges. They grow them in large pots outside for the summer months and then move them indoors or into a hobby greenhouse for the winter. Probably the easiest of the citrus plants to grow indoors are Meyer lemon and the Calamondin orange, but once you get the knack of it, branch out and you can have your own "orangery" indoors. Dwarf varieties are more suited to indoor and pot culture. Citrus trees need bright light--up to 12 hours per day would be great, but need at least 6-8 hours. If you don't have a bright sunny window, there are now great indoor plant lights available. The size of the container can be an issue. The bigger the pot, the bigger the plant can grow, but the larger the container, the more weight is involved which make moving it inside and out a problem. Opt for a large lightweight container, and make sure it has drainage holes. Use a lightweight potting soil. Indoors, cut back on the watering during the winter months. Even though they don't go dormant indoors, they usually slowdown in their growth inside during the winter months. Humidity is also low inside during the winter because of heaters. To increase humidity, you can put the pot on top of a shallow tray filled with pebbles and water. As the water evaporates, it raises the humidity. Fruit trees don't like wet feet, so don't let them stand in water, and let them dry out a bit in between watering. Make sure all chances of frost have passed before you move them outdoors for the summer. Citrus plants make beautiful and fragrant houseplants, and the edible showy fruits are a bonus as well.